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英文法の質問箱もくじへ

英文法の質問箱
分詞構文の作り方
質問:


分詞構文ってどのように作ればいいのですか?


質問者: 不明
学年・年齢: 不明
性別: 不明
回答:

なるべく質問は具体性のあるものにしてください。
たとえば分詞構文をまったく知らないのか, ある程度は知っているのか, なぜ分詞構文作り方を知らなくてはいけないのか(学校の教科書にあったとか問題集にあったとか), 分詞構文の問題でわからないのがあるとか。


(1)基本
従属節を分詞構文にする。 具体的には
1 接続詞+主語 をとる。
2 接続詞+主語を取ると残った動詞を現在分詞にする。 

As Tom felt sick, he stayed in bed for a while.
→ Feeling sick, Tom stayed in bed for a while.


従属節+主節 ではなく 等位節+等位節 の場合(つまり and, but などでつながる場合)どちらが分詞構文になってもよい。

The train started at seven, and arrived there at nine.
→ The train started at seven, arriving there at nine.
→ Starting at seven, the train arrived there at nine.
(and の場合どちらかと言えば上が多い。)


(2)すでに現在分詞,過去分詞の場合はそれを利用する。
(つまり受動態の時は過去分詞で分詞構文を始めることができる)

When he was walking in the street, he met Alice.
→ Walking in the street, he met Alice.


If he was compared with his brother, he is much friendlier.
→ Compared with his brother, he is much friendlier.



(3)否定文のときは not +分詞

As Tom didn't feel well, he stayed in bed for a while.
→ Not feeling well, he stayed in bed for a while.


(4)従属節の時制が, 主節より前なら having + 過去分詞。
   完了形のときも同じ。

As he lived in Canada, he can speak English well.
→ Having lived in Canada, he can speak English well.


As I had seen him before, I could recognize him soon.
Having seen him before, I could recognize him soon.


(5)従属節の主語と主節の主語が異なる時は 主語+分詞

As it was raining hard, I stayed home.
→ It raining hard, I stayed home.


参考: (3)〜(5)がいっしょになった例。
As the train didn't come on time, he is angry now.
→ The train not having come on time, he is angry now.


(6)接続詞を残しても良い。
While he was studying, he was watching TV.
→ While studying, he was watching TV.


(7)従属節が be動詞のときは being は省略してもよい。
As he is polular among girls, he is too self-conscious.
→ Popular among girls, he is too self-conscious.

上の回答に対する質問者からのレスポンス:
なし